You have probably received a root filesystem, which has been built with ELBE. Additionally, you should have an XML file describing the root filesystem.
This quickstart guide describes the steps necessary to rebuild the root-filesystem from the XML file and to simple modifications.
- install Debian 10 (buster) or later on your Host. The latest version of elbe should be compatible with this system.
- install ELBE on Host Linux
- generate the
initvmrunning the build environment
- build the root filesystem inside the initvm
Steps 1,2 and 3 need only be performed once.
When Debian is running inside a VM (vmware etc), you need to make sure, that nested KVM is working.
Customization of the build¶
The ELBE XML can contain an archive, which can contain configuration files, and additional software. This archive is extracted onto the target-image during the buildprocess. It allows you to override any file, which needs to be different from the default Debian Install.
This guide also explains how the archive can be extracted from the XML file, and vice versa.
ELBE allows manipulating the generated root filesystem through a set of
<finetuning> rules. We also describe, how these can be used to add a
user, change directory permissions, and remove files from the root
There are several possibilities to install ELBE. The simplest method is by installing prebuilt binary packages via Linutronix package repository on a Debian 10 (Buster) system.
But ELBE can also be installed from git.
Binary Debian packages¶
The latest packages for elbe reside in the following repository
Install the repository key to a known place (as root):
# apt install elbe-archive-keyring || wget -O /usr/share/keyrings/elbe-archive-keyring.gpg http://debian.linutronix.de/elbe/elbe-repo.pub.gpg
Add the following content to the file
# echo "deb [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/elbe-archive-keyring.gpg] http://debian.linutronix.de/elbe buster main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
Then run (as root):
# apt update # apt install elbe
Create initvm and submit XML files¶
The first thing you need to do is set up a virtual-machine for generating root-filesystems.
This virtual-machine is referred to as
initvm. You will want your
initvm to be the same architecture as your workstation. This allows
using hardware accelerated virtualization implemented by kvm.
To work with virtual machines as a regular user, the user needs to be added to kvm and libvirt groups:
# adduser <youruser> kvm # adduser <youruser> libvirt
Now create an
initvm subdirectory and builds the initvm inside this
$ elbe initvm create Import debian-archive-buster-automatic.gpg: gpg: key DC30D7C23CBBABEE: 4 Beglaubigungen wegen fehlender Schlüssel nicht geprüft gpg: Schlüssel DC30D7C23CBBABEE: Öffentlicher Schlüssel "Debian Archive Automatic Signing Key (10/buster) <firstname.lastname@example.org>" importiert gpg: Anzahl insgesamt bearbeiteter Schlüssel: 1 gpg: importiert: 1 ... Installing the base system ... 17%... 20%... 30%... 40%... 50%... 60%... 70%... 83%... 91% ... 100% Configuring apt ... 14%... 21%... 35%... 40%... 50%... 64%... 71%... 85%... 92%... 100% Select and install software ... 10%... 20%... 30%... 40%... 50%... 61%... 71%... 81%... 78%... 80%... 90% ... 100% Installing GRUB boot loader ... 16%... 33%... 50%... 66%... 83%... 100% The system is going down NOW!.. 12%... 20%... 33%... 41%... 50%... 62%... 70%... 83%... 91% Sent SIGKILL to all processes Requesting system reboot [ 656.391904] reboot: Restarting system mkdir -p .stamps touch .stamps/stamp-install-initial-image *****
Submitting an XML file¶
Submitting an XML file triggers an image build inside the initvm. Once the initvm has been created and is running, you can submit XML files using
$ elbe initvm submit examples/x86_64-pc-rescue-busybox-dyn-cpio.xml Build started, waiting till it finishes [INFO] Build started [INFO] ELBE Report for Project x86_64-rescue-image Report timestamp: 20191001-135512 [CMD] reprepro --basedir "/var/cache/elbe/63e09968-c9e7-45d8-8dd2-82c1a8f54f8d/repo" export stretch [CMD] mkdir -p "/var/cache/elbe/63e09968-c9e7-45d8-8dd2-82c1a8f54f8d/chroot" [INFO] Debootstrap log [CMD] dpkg --print-architecture [CMD] debootstrap --include="gnupg" --arch=amd64 "stretch" "/var/cache/elbe/63e09968-c9e7-45d8-8dd2-82c1a8f54f8d/chroot" "http://ftp.de.debian.org//debian" I: Retrieving InRelease I: Retrieving Release I: Retrieving Release.gpg I: Checking Release signature I: Valid Release signature (key id 067E3C456BAE240ACEE88F6FEF0F382A1A7B6500) I: Retrieving Packages I: Validating Packages I: Resolving dependencies of required packages... I: Resolving dependencies of base packages... I: Checking component main on http://ftp.de.debian.org//debian... I: Retrieving libacl1 2.2.52-3+b1 I: Validating libacl1 2.2.52-3+b1 ... 79.05% done, estimate finish Mon Aug 1 09:53:26 2022 81.77% done, estimate finish Mon Aug 1 09:53:26 2022 84.49% done, estimate finish Mon Aug 1 09:53:26 2022 87.22% done, estimate finish Mon Aug 1 09:53:26 2022 89.95% done, estimate finish Mon Aug 1 09:53:26 2022 92.67% done, estimate finish Mon Aug 1 09:53:27 2022 95.39% done, estimate finish Mon Aug 1 09:53:27 2022 98.12% done, estimate finish Mon Aug 1 09:53:27 2022 Total translation table size: 0 Total rockridge attributes bytes: 73534 Total directory bytes: 355120 Path table size(bytes): 2354 Max brk space used bd000 183454 extents written (358 MB) [INFO] Build finished successfully Build finished ! ELBE Package validation ======================= Package List validation
No Errors found Binary CD Source CD
Getting generated Files
Saving generated Files to elbe-build-20220801-095330 source.xml (Current source.xml of the project) rescue.cpio (Image) licence-chroot.txt (License file) licence-chroot.xml (xml License file) licence-target.txt (License file) licence-target.xml (xml License file) validation.txt (Package list validation result) elbe-report.txt (Report) log.txt (Log file) bin-cdrom.iso (Repository IsoImage) src-cdrom-target.iso (Repository IsoImage) src-cdrom-main.iso (Repository IsoImage) src-cdrom-added.iso (Repository IsoImage)
The result of the build is stored in elbe-build-<TIMESTAMP> below your current working directory. Ports opened by initvm
The initvm will open port 7587 on localhost. This is used by the elbe tools on your host to communicate with the initvm.
The ELBE XML file can contain an archivedir which is copied into the root-filesystem during the image generation phase.
It is done with the following XML node:
The new XML element ‘archivedir’ points to a local directory and adds the content into a newly created archive. ‘archivedir’ can be specified more than once. The content of the directories is copied in order of appearance. Existing files are overwritten by the later ones.
Example snippet to use ‘archivedir’:
<archivedir>foo</archivedir> <archivedir variant="production">bar</archivedir>
Adding packages to the “list of packages to install”¶
The XML file contains a list of packages to install
<target> XML node. Inserting a line containing
will add the
util-linux package to the target-rfs.
Using the finetuning rules¶
An ELBE XML file can contain a set of finetuning rules. Finetuning is
used to customize the target-rfs, e.g. remove man-pages. Here is an
example finetuning from
<finetuning> <rm>var/cache/apt/archives/*.deb</rm> <adduser passwd="elbe" shell="/bin/bash">elbe</adduser> </finetuning>
<rm> node removes files from the target-rfs.
The adduser node allows to create a user. The following example creates
elbe with the password
It is also possible to specify groups the new user should be part of:
<adduser passwd="foo" shell="/bin/bash" groups="audio,video,dialout">elbe</adduser>
Instead of specifying a plain-text password, it is also possible to use
hashed passwords in the XML. Hashed passwords can be either converted by
the Elbe preprocessing (
elbe preprocess <xml>), with the tool
mkpasswd or with various hashing libraries like crypt (C/C++) or
In this example, the command
mkpasswd is used to hash the plain-text
elbe. If the salt is not specified,
mkpasswd will use a
mkpasswd --method=sha512crypt --rounds=656000 --salt=7vWuOPVX0YKaISh5 "elbe"
The generated line contains the hashing parameters and the hashed
password and has to be copied completely to the
attribute in the XML.
<adduser passwd_hashed="$6$rounds=656000$7vWuOPVX0YKaISh5$cJhevq/z7kJ215n18dnksv/zOeUf6uPoLgICwLeTSu/2xoLHkyYQABaM7a99sQmpilCV.SlK9jfHZz3m7/s2a." shell="/bin/bash">elbe</adduser>
Changing ownership of directories or files¶
There is currently no special finetuning node for
chown. These commands needs to be specified via the command tag,
which allows running any command that is available in the target-rfs.
<command>chown elbe:elbe /mnt</command> <command>chmod 777 /mnt</command>
A more complete example can be found in the ELBE overview document that
is installed at
Using the Elbe Pbuilder Feature¶
Since Version 1.9.2, elbe is able to create a pbuilder Environment. You can create a pbuilder for a specific xml File inside the initvm.
The repositories and architecture specified in the xml File will be used
to satisfy build dependencies. It is possible to crosscompile packages
for a foreign architecture. To do so use the elbe pbuilder create
command with the –cross option. This will setup the right environment
for crosscompiling. To use this environment you have to use the –cross
option with the build command. (If the environment was created with the
–cross option, the build command must be used with –cross too.
Otherwise it will throw an error.) By creating an environment the
ccache gets installed by default to speed up
recompilations. It is possible to change the size or to deactivate it if
it is not needed. Pbuilder will only build debianised Software.
A pbuilder instance is always associated with a project inside the
pbuilder create command will write the project uuid to a
file, if instructed to do so.
pbuilder build works like
pdebuild, in that it uploads the
current working directory into the initvm pbuilder project, and then
builds it using the pbuilder instance created earlier.
Here is an example:
$ elbe pbuilder create --xmlfile examples/x86_64-pc-rescue-busybox-dyn-cpio.xml --writeproject ../pbuilder.prj $ git clone https://github.com/Linutronix/libgpio.git $ cd libgpio/ $ elbe pbuilder build --project `cat ~/repos/elbe/pbuilder.prj` --out ../out/
With these steps, elbe builds the libgpio project inside the initvm and stores the built packages in an internal repository. Every package, built in this manner, will also be stored in that repository. This repository can be used for later RFS builds.
List contents of the repository with the following command:
$ elbe prjrepo list_packages `cat ~/repos/elbe/pbuilder.prj` libgpio-dev_3.0.0_amd64.deb libgpio1_3.0.0_amd64.deb libgpio1-dbgsym_3.0.0_amd64.deb
To use this repository for further RFS builds download the repo with:
$ elbe prjrepo download `cat ~/repos/elbe/pbuilder.prj`
The repository is download as elbe-projectrepo-20191002-114244.tar.gz. This should be unpacked in the DocumentRoot of your webserver and customized with your key as explained in the next chapter.
Here is an example for crosscompiling a linux kernel with debian profiles:
$ elbe pbuilder --cross create --xmlfile examples/armhf-ti-beaglebone-black.xml --writeproject pbuilder.prj $ apt source linux $ cd linux*/ $ ../elbe pbuilder --cross --origfile ../linux*.orig.tar.xz --profile nodoc,nopython build --project `cat ../pbuilder.prj`
You might have your own packages which should be installed into your image. This can be done with a custom repository. You can use reprepro to create your own repository or the above mentioned pbuilder feature.
Because the repository needs to be signed using
gpg, a key needs to
-> gpg --default-new-key-algo rsa4096 --gen-key gpg (GnuPG) 2.1.18; Copyright (C) 2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc. This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law. Note: Use "gpg --full-generate-key" for a full featured key generation dialog. GnuPG needs to construct a user ID to identify your key. Real name: Torben Hohn Email address: email@example.com You selected this USER-ID: "Torben Hohn <firstname.lastname@example.org>" Change (N)ame, (E)mail, or (O)kay/(Q)uit? O We need to generate a lot of random bytes. It is a good idea to perform some other action (type on the keyboard, move the mouse, utilize the disks) during the prime generation; this gives the random number generator a better chance to gain enough entropy. gpg: key 68E68615BB6CB47C marked as ultimately trusted gpg: directory '/home/torbenh/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d' created gpg: revocation certificate stored as '/home/torbenh/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d/CF837F1AAAC35E084062AE4468E68615BB6CB47C.rev' public and secret key created and signed. Note that this key cannot be used for encryption. You may want to use the command "--edit-key" to generate a subkey for this purpose. pub rsa4096 2018-10-08 [SC] [expires: 2020-10-07] CF837F1AAAC35E084062AE4468E68615BB6CB47C CF837F1AAAC35E084062AE4468E68615BB6CB47C uid Torben Hohn <email@example.com>
Please note the keyname (here
CF837F1AAAC35E084062AE4468E68615BB6CB47C). This keyname can then be
used to export the public key into a repo.pub file.
gpg --export --armor CF837F1AAAC35E084062AE4468E68615BB6CB47C > repo.pub
To create your own repository with reprepro or the elbe pbuilder feature
you need only the
distributions configuration file. For an
source repository for Debian
stretch it might look as
Origin: mylocal Label: mylocal Suite: stable Codename: stretch Architectures: amd64 source Components: main Description: my local repo SignWith: CF837F1AAAC35E084062AE4468E68615BB6CB47C
SignWith: field needs to be the key of the previously
Now place the
distributions file in a
conf named directory. also
repo.pub into your
repo/ ├── conf │ └── distributions └── repo.pub
insert pkgs into repo¶
To include packages in your repository you might use the following
command from inside the
$ reprepro include stretch ../path/to/your/*.changes
To use this repository from ELBE you need a webserver. Simply place the repository inside the document root of your webserver.
If the webserver is running on the same machine as the initvm you can use the following to access the repository:
<url-list> <url> <binary>http://LOCALMACHINE/repo/ buster main</binary> <source>http://LOCALMACHINE/repo/ buster main</source> <key>http://LOCALMACHINE/repo/repo.pub</key> </url> </url-list>
ELBE replaces the string
LOCALMACHINE with the ip address of your
machine. If you use an external machine as webserver you need to replace
LOCALMACHINE with the name or the ip of it.
Now you can install packages from your custom repository the same way you can install from any other repository.